BROKERAGE AND VALUATION SERVICES

Reports

Each written real property appraisal report must be prepared under one of the following two options and prominently state which option is used: Appraisal Report, Restricted Appraisal Report.

Comment:
When the intended users include parties other than the client, an Appraisal Report must be provided. When the intended users do not include parties other than the client, a Restricted Appraisal Report may be provided.

The essential difference among these two options is in the content and level of information provided. The appropriate reporting option and the level of information necessary in the report are dependent on the intended use and the intended users.

An appraiser must use care when characterizing the type of report and level of information communicated upon completion of an assignment. An appraiser may use any other label in addition to, but not in place of, the label set forth in this Standard for the type of report

The report content and level of information requirements set forth in this Standard are minimums for each type of report. An appraiser must supplement a report form, when necessary, to ensure that any intended user of the appraisal is not misled and that the report complies with the applicable content requirements set forth in this Standards Rule.

A party receiving a copy of an Appraisal Report or a Restricted Appraisal Report in order to satisfy disclosure requirements does not become an intended user of the appraisal unless the appraiser identifies such party as an intended user as part of the assignment.

(a) The content of an Appraisal Report must be consistent with the intended use of the appraisal and, at a minimum:
(i) state the identity of the client and any intended users, by name or type;

Comment:
An appraiser must use care when identifying the client to ensure a clear understanding and to a
void violations of the Confidentiality section of the ETHICS RULE. In those rare instances when the client wishes to remain anonymous, an appraiser must still document the identity of the client in the workfile but may omit the client’s identity in the report.

Intended users of the report might include parties such as lenders, employees of government agencies, partners of a client, and a client’s attorney and accountant.
(ii) state the intended use of the appraisal;

(iii) describe information sufficient to identify the real estate involved in the appraisal, including the physical and economic property characteristics relevant to the assignment;

Comment:
The real estate involved in the appraisal can be specified, for example, by a legal description, address, map reference, copy of a survey or map, property sketch and/or photographs or the like. The information can include a property sketch and photographs in addition to written comments about the legal, physical, and economic attributes of the real estate relevant to the type and definition of value and intended use of the appraisal.

(iv) state the real property interest appraised;

Comment:
The statement of the real property rights being appraised must be substantiated, as needed, by copies or summaries of title descriptions or other documents that set forth any known encumbrances.

(v) state the type and definition of value and cite the source of the definition;

Comment:
: Stating the definition of value also requires any comments needed to clearly indicate to intended users how the definition is being applied.

x in terms of cash or of financing terms equivalent to cash, or

x based on non-market financing or financing with unusual conditions or incentives.
When an opinion of market value is not in terms of cash or based on financing terms equivalent to cash, summarize the terms of such financing and explain their contributions to or negative influence on value.
(vi) state the effective date of the appraisal and the date of the report;

Comment:
The effective date of the appraisal establishes the context for the value opinion, while the date of the report indicates whether the perspective of the appraiser on the market and property as of the effective date of the appraisal was prospective, current, or retrospective.

(vii) describe the scope of work used to develop the appraisal;

Comment:
Because intended users’ reliance on an appraisal may be affected by the scope of work, the report must enable them to be properly informed and not misled. Sufficient information includes disclosure of research and analyses performed and might also include disclosure of research and analyses not performed.

When any portion of the work involves significant real property appraisal assistance, the appraiser must describe the extent of that assistance. The signing appraiser must also state the name(s) of those providing the significant real property appraisal assistance in the certification, in accordance with Standards Rule 2-3.

(viii) describe the information analyzed, the appraisal methods and techniques employed, and the reasoning that supports the analyses, opinions, and conclusions; exclusion of the sales comparison approach, cost approach, or income approach must be explained;
(ix)

Comment:
An Appraisal Report must include sufficient information to indicate that the appraiser complied with the requirements of STANDARD 1. The amount of detail required will vary with the significance of the information to the appraisal.

The appraiser must provide sufficient information to enable the client and intended users to understand the rationale for the opinions and conclusions, including reconciliation of the data and approaches, in accordance with Standards Rule 1-6. When reporting an opinion of market value, a summary of the results of analyzing the subject sales, options, and listings in accordance with Standards Rule 1-5 is required.

If such information is unobtainable, a statement on the efforts undertaken by the appraiser to obtain the information is required. If such information is irrelevant, a statement acknowledging the existence of the information and citing its lack of relevance is required.

(ix) state the use of the real estate existing as of the date of value and the use of the real estate reflected in the appraisal; and, when an opinion of highest and best use was developed by the appraiser, describe the support and rationale for that opinion;

(x) clearly and conspicuously:
x state all extraordinary assumptions and hypothetical conditions; and
x state that their use might have affected the assignment results; and
(xi) include a signed certification in accordance with Standards Rule 2-3.
(b) The content of an Appraisal Report must be consistent with the intended use of the
appraisal and, at a minimum:

Comment:
(i) state the identity of the client and any intended users, by name or type;

Comment:
An appraiser must use care when identifying the client to ensure a clear understanding and to avoid violations of the

Confidentiality section of the ETHICS RULE. In those rare instances when the client wishes to remain anonymous, an appraiser must still document the identity of the client in the workfile but may omit the client’s identity in the report.

Intended users of the report might include parties such as lenders, employees of government agencies, partners of a client, and a client’s attorney and accountant.
(ii) state the intended use of the appraisal;
(iii) summarize information sufficient to identify the real estate involved in the appraisal, including the physical and economic property characteristics relevant to the assignment;

Comment:
The real estate involved in the appraisal can be specified, for example, by a legal description, address, map reference,copy of a survey or map, property sketch, and/or photographs or the like. The summarized information can include a property sketch and photographs in addition to written comments about the legal, physical, and economic attributes of the real estate relevant to the type and definition of value and intended use of the appraisal.

(iv) state the real property interest appraised;
Comment:
The statement of the real property rights being appraised must be substantiated, as needed, by copies or
summaries of title descriptions or other documents that set forth any known encumbrances.

Comment:
Stating the definition of value also requires any comments needed to clearly indicate to the intended users howthe definition is being applied.

When reporting an opinion of market value, state whether the opinion of value is:
x in terms of cash or of financing terms equivalent to cash, or
x based on non-market financing or financing with unusual conditions or incentives.
When an opinion of market value is not in terms of cash or based on financing terms equivalent to cash, summarize the terms of such financing and explain their contributions to or negative influence on value.
(vi) state the effective date of the appraisal and the date of the report;

Comment:
The effective date of the appraisal establishes the context for the value opinion, while the date of the report indicates whether the perspective of the appraiser on the market and property as of the effective date of the appraisal was prospective, current, or retrospective.

(vii) summarize the scope of work used to develop the appraisal;

Comment:
Because intended users’ reliance on an appraisal may be affected by the scope of work, the re
port must enable them to be properly informed and not misled. Sufficient information includes disclosure of research and analyses performed and might also include disclosure of research and analyses not performed.

When any portion of the work involves significant real property appraisal assistance, the appraiser must summarize the extent of that assistance. The signing appraiser must also state the name(s) of those providing the significant real property appraisal assistance in the certification, in accordance with Standards Rule 2-3.

(viii) summarize the information analyzed, the appraisal methods and techniques employed, and the reasoning that supports the analyses, opinions, and conclusions; exclusion of the sales comparison approach, cost approach, or income approach must be explained;
(ix)

The Restricted Appraisal Report is for client use only. Before entering into an agreement, the appraiser should establish with the client the situations where this type of report is to be used and should ensure that the client understands the restricted utility of The Restricted Appraisal Report.
(ii) state the intended use of the appraisal;

Comment:
The intended use of the appraisal must be consistent with the limitation on use of The Restricted Appraisal Report option in this Standards Rule (i.e., client use only).

(iii) state information sufficient to identify
the real estate involved in the appraisal;

Comment:
The real estate involved in the appraisal can be specified, for example, by a legal description, address, map reference,copy of a survey or map, property sketch, and/or photographs or the like.

(iv) state the real property interest appraised;
(v) state the type of value, and cite the source of its definition;

(vi) state the effective date of the appraisal and the date of the report;

Comment:
The effective date of the appraisal establishes the context for the value opinion, while the date of the report indicates whether the perspective of the appraiser on the market and property as of the effective date of the appraisal was prospective, current, or retrospective.

(vii) state the scope of work used to develop the appraisal;

Comment:
Because the client’s reliance on an appraisal may be affected by the scope of work, the report must enable them to be properly informed and not misled. Sufficient information includes disclosure
of research and analyses performed and might also include disclosure of research and analyses not performed.

When any portion of the work involves significant real property appraisal assistance, the appraiser must state the extent of that assistance. The signing appraiser must also state the name(s) of those providing the significant real property appraisal assistance in the certification, in accordance with Standards Rule 2-3.

(viii) state the appraisal methods and techniques employed, state the value opinion(s) and conclusion(s) reached, and reference the workfile; exclusion of the sales comparison approach, cost approach, or income approach must be explained;
(ix)
Comment:
An appraiser must maintain a specific,coherent workfile in support of a Restricted Appraisal Report. The contents of the workfile must include sufficient information to indicate that the appraiser complied with the requirements of STANDARD 1 and for the appraiser to produce an Appraisal Report. The file must be available for inspection by the client (or the client’s representatives, such as those engaged to complete an appraisal review), state enforcement agencies, such third parties as may be authorized by due process of law, and a duly authorized professional peer review committee except when such disclosure to a committee would violate applicable law or regulation.

If such information is unobtainable, a statement on the efforts undertaken by the appraiser to obtain the information is required. If such information is irrelevant, a statement acknowledging the existence of the information and citing its lack of relevance is required.

(ix) state the use of the real estate existing as of the date of value and the use of the real
estate reflected in the appraisal; and, when an opinion of highest and best use was
developed by the appraiser, state that opinion;
(x) clearly and conspicuously:
x state all extraordinary assumptions and hypothetical conditions; and
x state that their use might have affected the assignment results; and
(xi) include a signed certification in accordance with Standards Rule 2-3.

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